The Paris Agreement is a landmark international accord signed in 2015 to address the issue of climate change. The agreement was reached at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Paris, France.
The Paris Agreement aims to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The agreement also aims to strengthen the ability of countries to adapt to the impacts of climate change and foster low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions development.
The agreement has been signed by 195 countries and ratified by 189 of them, including all major greenhouse gas emitters such as China and the United States. The Paris Agreement is considered a historic achievement in international climate policy, as it represents the first-ever global agreement to address climate change.
The Paris Agreement establishes a framework for all countries to take action to reduce GHG emissions. Each country is required to submit a nationally determined contribution (NDC) outlining its climate actions and targets. The NDCs are non-binding but are intended to be reviewed and updated every five years.
The Paris Agreement also establishes a mechanism for countries to cooperate and share knowledge and technology to support the transition to a low-carbon economy. Developed countries are also required to provide financial assistance to developing countries to support their climate actions and adaptation efforts.
While the Paris Agreement has been successful in bringing together the international community to address climate change, there are still challenges to its implementation. The current NDCs submitted by countries are not sufficient to meet the 2-degree Celsius goal, let alone the more ambitious 1.5-degree Celsius goal. There is also a need for increased investment in clean energy and climate adaptation efforts.
In summary, the Paris Agreement is a historic global agreement to address climate change. It aims to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The agreement establishes a framework for countries to take action to reduce GHG emissions and cooperate on knowledge and technology. However, there are still challenges to its implementation, including the need for increased ambition and investment.